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Data set deprecation: HadCRUT4 has been superseded by HadCRUT5.

Further use of HadCRUT4 is not recommended for purposes other than comparison with newer data sets.

HadCRUT4 is a gridded dataset of global historical surface temperature anomalies relative to a 1961-1990 reference period. Data are available for each month since January 1850, on a 5 degree grid. The dataset is a collaborative product of the Met Office Hadley Centre and the Climatic Research Unit at the University of East Anglia.

Brief description of the data

The gridded data are a blend of the CRUTEM4 land-surface air temperature dataset and the HadSST3 sea-surface temperature (SST) dataset. The dataset is presented as an ensemble of 100 dataset realisations that sample the distribution of uncertainty in the global temperature record given current understanding of non-climatic factors affecting near-surface temperature observations. This ensemble approach allows characterisation of spatially and temporally correlated uncertainty structure in the gridded data, for example arising from uncertainties in methods used to account for changes in SST measurement practices, homogenisation of land station records and the potential impacts of urbanisation.

The HadCRUT4 data are neither interpolated nor variance adjusted.

Map of combined land-surface and sea-surface temperature anomalies from HadCRUT4

Go to download page Data are available from the download page without charge for the purposes of private study and scientific research, but please read the terms and conditions.

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When using the data set in a paper, the following is the correct citation to use:

Morice, C. P., J. J. Kennedy, N. A. Rayner, and P. D. Jones (2012), Quantifying uncertainties in global and regional temperature change using an ensemble of observational estimates: The HadCRUT4 dataset, J. Geophys. Res., 117, D08101, doi:10.1029/2011JD017187.

Other information

Global and regional time series

Diagrams from the paper

Frequently asked questions (FAQ)

Dataset version information and previous versions

Dataset produced in collaboration with:

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